The Egyptian Pyramids at Giza, were constructed between 2589 and 2930 B-C by three of the rulers of the fourth dynasty of Ancient Egypt Cheops (Khufu) ,Chephren (Khafre) and Micernius (Menkaure), of whom very little is known, though their monuments have Survived virtually intact. Each of these structures is a Complex of building, rather than a pyramid.
The site was prepared by removing the thick layers of Sand and gravel, and then layers the rock, smoothing the uneven surface end constructing a limestone platform, which extended beyond the projected pyramid on all sides. Finally round this was built an enclosure wall.
The pyramid was Orientated to the Cardinal points. The Core was built of the local limestone, but faced with liner limestone, from quarries at Turah (south of al- Maadi on the west Bank) and red granite from Aswan quarries.
Each pyramid had to the east a small Mortuary Temple built against the structure. And, at a greater distance, a Valley temple Joined the later by a causeway.
This Served during the Construction of The pyramid as a slipway to bring The Casing Stones up to the pyramid and, when the building was finished, as a Ceremonial route between the two temples.
Each of The Pyramids was given a name; around the pyramids were Mastaba fields where the relations and nobles were buried Close to The king’s tombs. Many attempts have been made to prove that Great Pyramids of Giza were not burial places, but there is on evidence to Support this.
The Great Pyramid
Called Khufu is one belonging to the horizon) now Stands 137 M high but was Originally 140 M. Khufu (Cheops) Seems to have been an absolute ruler with Complete Control Over the administration which was largely in the hands of his immediate family. At least 2,300,000 stone blocks averaging 2, 5 tons were used, although some were much larger- up to 15 tons.
Herodotus estimated that 100,000 Men were required to build the great pyramid of Giza .the whole project was the work of Skilled Craftsmen, no untrained slaves as has been often suggested , and would have been undertaken during The months of the inundation.
There are 3 chambers within the pyramid, Two inside The built section and one under laying the Structure, these are thought to mark changes in the plan of the whole building. The present entry, forced by the Khalif Mamum in the 9th Century AD, when he visited Egypt.
After the Construction of this second burial Chamber, the builders seem to have changed their plans again, the main structure was further enlarged and a third burial place constructed at a higher level.
To reach this visitors pass through the grand Gallery (E) the most impressive part of the construction of the Pyramids, over 47M long, and 8.5 M high in the center with a corbelled roof similar to those in the internal chambers of the Pyramid of Mudum and Dahshur, on each side are rectangular holes, perhaps for holding beams to retain the plug holes intended to block the Gallery .The Gallery ends in a horizontal passage or antechamber 8.4 M long, lined with granite .
Beyond is the main burial chamber usually called the king’s chamber. Above this room are 5 relieving chambers designed to take weight of the upper part of the pyramid.
Khufu’s Mortuary Temple
Stands to the (E) of the main structure and it closely associated with it, unfortunately little remains but the foundations and part of the basalt pavement. This temple was joined to the Valley temple by a causeway.
The Valley Temple
Is situated under the modern village of Nazalt el Saman . To the north and south of this building are two boat shaped pits cut in the rock, they were empty when found as was a third near the temple. However, in 1954 a fourth boat pit was found, containing a partly dismantled boat of Cendar. 43 M long. This boat has been reconstructed and it’s now housed in a specially air conditioned Solar Boat Museum.It seems that the boat had been used on the Nile. These boat pits, usually found empty, are known from the time of the 1 day, Royal Mastaba .
But the exact foundation of boats has not been determined , some may have been used for the funeral procession, other perhaps were intended for the king in the after life after world, when he voyage with Ra .
The Pyramid of Khafre (Chephren)
The most complete complex of them all the height of this structure is 136 Meter originally 145 M. This pyramid appears larger than the Great Pyramid of Khufu but it is actually slightly smaller. Higher on the limestone plateau. It was first entered in recent times by Belzoni in March 1818.
The Pyramid of Menkaure(Micernius)
The third pyramid to the south is The Pyramid of Menkaure (Micernius). It is the smallest of the group and was built bet between 2533 and 2505 B-C , although finished by Menkaure ‘s son. The main pyramid is built on the edge of the sloping plateau and originally stood 66.5 M high.
The basalt sarcophagus which was lost at Sea off Spanish coast when the ship carrying it to England sank during a storm.
The word for pyramid in Ancient Time is “Mer” “Place of ascension” for the king after death, Greek “Pyramid” “Wheaten cake”. Perhaps the word Pyramid came from the Coptic pyramid “Meaning height” the Arabic word is unknown “Haram” it refers to an old thing referring to the ancient age of the Pyramids.
Pyramid perhaps were built to resemble a leader for the soul to climb up to heaven.